A Comprehensive Look at the Six Characteristics of LED Lights

Energy Saving Features

LED light source with high luminance efficiency

Comparison of luminous efficiency: incandescent light efficiency is 10-15lm, tungsten halogen light efficiency is 12-24 lumens/watt, fluorescent light 50-90 lumens/watt, sodium light 90-140 lumen/watt, most of the power consumption becomes heat loss.

LED light efficiency: It emits 50-200 lumens/watt and has a narrow spectrum and good monochromaticity. It can directly emit colored visible light without filtering.

2.LED light source consumes less power

Single LED tube power ranges from 0.03-0.06 Watts when driven by DC. The single tube voltage is between 1.5-3.5 Volts. The current 15-18 mA is a high-frequency device that has a quick response time and enables it to be operated with varying frequencies. When used with the same lighting effect, the power consumption is one ten thousandth of that of incandescent lamps and one half of that of fluorescent tubes. In Japan, it’s estimated that LEDs are twice as energy-efficient as fluorescent bulbs, and can replace up to half of the incandescent lamps in Japan. This would save 6 billion liters crude oil each year. The power of a fluorescent lamp that has the same effect as an LED is 18 watts. .

3.LED light source has long service life

Electronic light field radiation is used to produce light in fluorescent lamps, tungsten halogen bulbs, and incandescent lamps. The filament is susceptible to heat deposition and light loss. It emits light. LED lamps are small, lightweight, and encapsulated with epoxy resin. They can withstand high strength mechanical impact.

4.Strong safety and reliability

It has low calorific value, no thermal radiation, cold light source, safe to touch, can accurately control the light pattern and angle of light, and light color, no glare, and does not contain mercury, sodium and other substances that may be harmful to health.

5.LED light source is beneficial to environmental protection

LED is an all-solid-state light emitter, is impact-resistant and not easily broken, is recyclable, has no pollution, reduces the generation of harmful gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrides, and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, and improves people’s living environment. This is a “green light source.”

There are currently three technologies for producing white LEDs: one, which uses the principle of three primary colors and the three ultra-high brightness LEDs of red, green, and blue that can be produced to mix the light intensity in a ratio of 3:1:6 to produce white; the other, which uses ultra-high-brightness LEDs Highly InGan blue LED, with a small amount of yttrium-diamond-granite-based phosphor added to the tube, it can produce yellow-green light under blue light excitation, and this yellow-green light can be combined with the transmitted blue light to synthesize white light. All three are incompatible to ultraviolet light. Light LED uses ultraviolet light to excite three primary color phosphors or other phosphors to produce white light mixed with multiple colors.

LED light source is energy-saving

Energy savings is the primary reason we are considering LEDs. LEDs may be more expensive than traditional light sources, but using energy savings in one year to recoup the investment in light sources will lead to a net payback period of several times the annual energy savings in 4 to 9 years.

Life of Lights

The best way to drive leds is with constant current sources. When using constant current source drive, it is not necessary to connect a resistor that limits the current in series with output circuit. The LED current is not affected externally by changes in voltage, temperature, or LED parameters. influence, so that the current can be kept constant and the various excellent characteristics of LED can be fully utilized.

LED lamps are powered by a constant-current LED power supply. Since the current flowing through the LED is automatically detected and controlled during operation of the power supply, there is no need to worry about excessive current flowing through the LED at the moment of power on, or a load short circuit and burnout. Power supply failure.

Lamp housing

LED lights have the characteristics of high efficiency, environmental protection and long life. However, people who often use LED lights will find that because LEDs are extremely bright, they can easily turn light energy into heat energy, making LED lights very hot. If the LED is unable to dissipate its heat as quickly and efficiently as possible, it will have a shorter lifespan.

Many LED manufacturers use aluminum casings for LED lamps. Aluminum casings are easy to dissipate heat, have beautiful appearance and are lightweight. Aluminum casings are used in many high-end electronics. The company’s “Mac Pro” high-end notebook computers use an aluminum casing for heat dissipation. This means that the computer doesn’t need a fan.

The aluminum shell of LED can increase the life of the wick and make the LED light look beautiful. However, the aluminum lamp cup is relatively expensive and the production cost is very high. The lamp cup needs to be processed with a lathe. Some LED lights of high and medium quality will have aluminum housings.

Plastic housings are another common housing for LED lamps. Some low-end LED lights use plastic shells because they are inexpensive. Plastic shells do not dissipate heat well, and they tend to melt or sublimate when heated, producing harmful gases. Europe, North America and Japan don’t use plastic casings. Plastic casings are popular in certain areas of the country due to the high demand for LED lights.

household lamp

Many LED lights can replace spiral incandescent lamps or energy-saving light bulbs, ranging from 5-40 watts, low-power incandescent lamps, to 60 watts (requiring only about 7 watts of electricity). Some lamps are able to replace even higher-power bulbs as of 2010. For example, a 13-watt light bulb has about the same brightness as a 100-watt incandescent lamp. Incandescent bulbs have an efficiency of 14-17 lumens/watt depending on the size and voltage. EU standards require that an “energy-saving lamp” equal to a 60 watt incandescent bulb must have at least 806 lumens.

Most LED bulbs are designed to be non-dimmable, but some can be operated with dimmers and have a narrow illumination angle. Since 2010, the price of these light bulbs has dropped from $30 to $50. LED bulbs are more energy efficient than energy-saving light bulbs, and can last up to 30,000 hrs if the heat is properly dissipated. Incandescent lamps generally only have a lifespan of 1,000 hours, and energy-saving light bulbs only have a lifespan of about 8,000 hours. Therefore, LED bulbs can be used for about 25 to 30 years, and the brightness decreases very little over time. The Energy Star standard stipulates that after a light bulb is used for 6,000 hours, the luminosity attenuation should be within 10%, and the worst case should not exceed 15%. Unlike fluorescent lamps, LED bulbs are mercury-free. LED bulbs are available in a variety of colors. Although the selling price is higher, it is offset by lower electricity and maintenance costs.

Special Purpose

White LED bulbs are highly efficient and have a leading position in low-power consumption markets (such as flashlights, solar garden lights, pedestrian street lights, bicycle lights, etc.). Single-color LED lights are often used to make traffic lights and holiday lighting.

LED lights were a popular topic in 2010 for horticulture, agriculture and other related circles. NASA pioneered the use of LED lights for planting in space, and domestic and commercial indoor gardening followed suit. These special planting lights are specially designed so that the light waves are exactly the wavelengths absorbed by chlorophyll. This not only promotes growth, but also reduces light waves that are not absorbed by plants, causing waste. In the visible spectrum, only red and blue are needed for photosynthesis, so these lights are designed with both colors in mind. These LED lights are more suitable for indoor growing than similar products because they can produce the same brightness, don’t require a ballast and produce less heat. Less heat can reduce evapotranspiration, thereby reducing the number of fillings. For this reason, when using these planting lights, plants should not be overwatered.

Buying guide

  1. Choose LEDs with the “Three Guarantees”, and lamps that have the CCC certification mark.
  2. The LED lamp productlabels must be complete. Labels should be placed on all products.
  3. The CCC mark is a safety certification that you can look for on the LED power cord.
  4. Check whether the live parts of the lamp are exposed. The metal lamp holder should not be touched by fingers after the light source has been installed.
  5. Check if the LED chip is in the correct position, and if the lens or screen has worn out.

Cause of damage

  1. The voltage is unstable. An increase in the power supply voltage is particularly likely to cause damage to the LED lamp. A sudden voltage increase can be caused by a number of factors, including faulty power supplies or incorrect usage. The power supply voltage may suddenly increase. high.
  2. This is caused by a short circuit in the power supply of the lamp. This is usually caused by a component in the circuit or a short-circuit in other wires that increases the voltage in this place.
  3. The LED may be damaged by its own quality, causing a short-circuit. This voltage drop then spreads to the other LEDs.
  4. The lamp’s heat dissipation is bad. The lamp’s lighting is actually a process of heat dissipation. If the temperature inside the lamp is too high, the characteristics of the LED will easily deteriorate. The LED lights can be damaged by this.
  5. Water is conductive and will cause the lamp to short-circuit.
  6. Static electricity has damaged the LED’s interior due to a failure to perform anti-static work. Even if normal voltage and current values are applied, it is very easy to cause damage to the LED.

Common causes and solutions for LED light flickering

Normaly, the human eye is able to detect flickering light up to a frequency 70 Hz. However, it cannot detect frequencies above this. In LED lighting applications, If the pulse signal contains a low frequency component, with a lower frequency than 70 Hz the human eye can feel flicker. Of course, in specific applications, there are many factors that may cause LED lights to flicker.

For example, in offline low-power LED lighting applications, a common power supply topology is an isolated flyback topology.

The flyback regulator’s sinusoidal square-wave power conversion does not supply constant energy to primary bias. This can cause the dynamic self-power (DSS)) circuit to activate, causing the light to flicker.

To avoid this problem, the primary bias must be allowed to partially discharge during each half-cycle. The values of the resistors and capacitors in the bias circuit must be selected accordingly.

Even LED drivers with excellent power factor correction that support TRIAC dimming require electromagnetic interference (EMI).

The transient current caused by the TRIAC step will excite the natural resonance of the inductor and capacitor in the EMI filter.

The TRIAC will shut off if this resonant feature causes the input current drop below the TRIAC hold current. After a brief delay, the TRIAC will usually turn on again and stimulate the same resonance.

This series of events may repeat multiple times during one half cycle of the input power waveform, resulting in visible LED flashes. In order to solve this problem, a requirement for TRIAC dimming would be that the input capacitance is very low. This capacitance must also be decoupled from the winding impedance by the TRIAC.

According to the formula, if the capacitance in the dimming module is reduced, the resistance of the resonant circuit can be increased, which in principle suppresses oscillation and restores the desired circuit operation.

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